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    Dictionary of polygraphic terms

    Blisters

    is a type of packaging that is widely used for packing products with small dimensions. The cartons are compatible with the plastic moldings, a blister varnish is applied to the surface of the cardboard, which, under the influence of high temperature and pressure, glues the plastic moldings with the cardboard.

    Solid cardboard

    is made by gluing from two to several layers of paper pulp. For its production, coarser fibers of wood pulp, rags and waste paper are used. Some manufacturers also add fillers and chemical additives that increase resistance to stress, contact with water or freezing. An important parameter determining the strength of the cardboard is the cardboard density, which is expressed in grams / m². The high density of the cardboard makes the cardboard harder and more resistant to mechanical damage.

    Corrugated cardboard

    it is formed by combining two to seven layers of liners, the middle layer (fluting) being wavy. This significantly increases the rigidity of the cardboard sheet. It is mainly used for the production of collective packaging (cardboard boxes). There are three most popular types of waves in three-layer cardboard: wave B – cardboard thickness is ∼3 mm, wave C – cardboard thickness is ∼4 mm, wave E (microwave) – cardboard thickness is ∼1 mm

    E-commerce packaging

    is a cardboard box made of corrugated cardboard for online mail order sales. It is often equipped with a tear tape to facilitate opening and the possibility of re-closing the box for reuse.

    Display

    is a collective packaging for individual products that performs a transport, protective and display function, ensuring quick product identification and at the same time facilitating the process of putting the goods on the shelf

    Stand

    is a spatial cardboard display consisting of several parts and shelves, used mainly for marketing and promotional purposes

    Laminated packaging

    are corrugated board packages laminated with solid board with or without printing. Often used to store products susceptible to damage, with larger dimensions or weight.

    Collapsible / transport packaging

    packages made of corrugated multi-layer cardboard without printing or printed in flexo technology. They are used to store and transport unit products.

    Grammage

    it is the weight of a square meter of a paper product, which is expressed in g / m2 (gramm per square meter), the basis weight of the paper should not be related to the thickness of the paper in any way because different classes of papers have different thicknesses, e.g. 350g / m2 GD2 is about 0.49mm while 340g / m2 thick, GC2 is already about 0.62mm thick. As the thickness increases, its stiffness tends to increase.

    FSC

    Forest Stewardship Council – is an international organization that sets standards for responsible forest management, taking into account social, ecological and economic aspects. FSC-certified products ensure that they are produced from responsible raw materials.

    BRC

    BRC / IOP – is a system designed for companies dealing with the production of packaging in contact with food. Obtaining the BRC IOP certificate gives the company international recognition of the quality, safety and product liability mark. The content of the BRC IOP standard has been designed in such a way that the company could shortly improve its processes, reducing the need for their multiple control. The implementation of BCR IOP guarantees the safety of the manufactured packaging and compliance with all legal and hygienic requirements.

    ECT

    Edgewise Crush Test – a test of cardboard resistance to column crushing. A rectangular cardboard sample is placed vertically in such a way that the pressure direction corresponds to the actual load direction in the finished package. The ECT value is expressed in the unit kN / m. The ECT test determines the quality of the cardboard, the higher the value, the better the cardboard. This parameter is very important when storing ready-made cartons in a stack.

    Bursting

    It determines the maximum pressure generated by the hydraulic system, pushing a flexible circular membrane rigidly clamped on the periphery of the cardboard sample, which causes it to break. Burst strength is expressed in [kPa].

    FCT

    The Flat Crush Test is a method by which it is possible to determine the resistance of cardboard to crushing. The test consists in applying pressure to the outer flat layers of the corrugated cardboard, causing the wave to be permanently crushed. The value of this parameter depends on the type of corrugation and the quality of the paper used for the corrugated layer.

    BCT

    box compression test. The test determines the compressive strength of the packaging. It is a method of testing the compressive strength of the finished, shaped box. It is expressed as the value of the force acting directly on the box during its crushing, which causes its destruction or deformation.

    FEFCO

    it is a directory established by the European Federation of Corrugated Board Manufacturers. The catalog is intended to replace complicated descriptions of packaging structures and present them in the form of graphic symbols and associated codes. It is a very useful tool for both packaging designers and facilitates communication between the customer and the packaging manufacturer. It is dedicated to corrugated cardboard packaging.

    ECMA

    similarly to FEFCO, it is a packaging design catalog, only developed by the European Carton Makers Association and dedicated to solid cardboard packaging.

    Automatic bottom

    packaging with an automatic / cross bottom, usually for manual folding, designed in such a way that when the packaging is unfolded, the bottom forms and locks itself.

    Semi-automatic bottom

    self-securing bottom of the package, where you have to manually form the walls of the bottom of the package while maintaining the appropriate order of folding.

    Die-cut packaging

    a packaging with a structure and shape that is so complex that it is necessary to use cutting tools for its production

    Flap packaging

    Flap packaging or colloquially “american box” – the most common corrugated cardboard packaging with an economic structure that minimizes the consumption of raw material, flaps on the bottom and lid, usually taped, usually produced using a slotting machine, without the need to use dies

    Flexo

    flexographic printing is a relief printing technique involving the use of flexible printing forms and liquid fast-drying inks.

    Offset

    Offset printing is a type of flat printing. in this method, the image is transferred from a flat printing plate to the printing substrate by means of an intermediate cylinder covered with an offset blanket

    CtP

    Computer to Plate – currently the basic method of creating a printing form, which consists in exposing an image on a plate from an electronic file

    CMYK

    are the four primary colors of printing inks. The abbreviation was created by combining the first letters of the English color names: C-Cyan, M-Magenta, Y-Yellow, K-blacK.

    Pantone

    PMS are special colors, the so-called spot. The color range is included in the color card. The colors of these paints complement the process colors. They are used most often when it is important to use a very specific color, e.g. in the logotype, because then we obtain a very precise color, or when printing with one color is cheaper than the use of 4 CMYK colors.

    Dispersion varnish

    acrylic water varnish is a dispersion of polymers suspended in water, in a liquid state before application it has a cloudy, white color, after application to the surface it becomes transparent, the varnish can be glossy and matte with a different level of fluidity and depth of matt, additionally varnishes can be modified through various types of additives (e.g. waxes) so that, in addition to the visual aspects, they also meet specific functional properties, i.e. increased resistance to abrasion, increased or decreased slip, resistance to alcohol, susceptibility to blistering, increased resistance to blocking in the stack, they can be used in such printing techniques like offset, flexo, screen printing.

    UV varnish

    it is a varnish that is applied to the printed surface and then fixed with UV radiation. They can be glossy or matte varnishes.

    Spot UV Varnish

    it is applied to the printed surface only on selected places and objects. Elements covered with this varnish are shinier. The best results are obtained with the use of selective varnish on matte surfaces.

    Effect varnishes

    otherwise known as hybrid varnishes. Hybrid effects are achieved through the simultaneous use of two types of varnishes. The first of them, oil varnish, is applied from the offset plate to the places that are to be the effect of the structure. The second, glossy dispersion or UV glossy varnish is applied to the entire surface. Hybrid effects, for example: “orange peel”, is created as a result of the impact of the non-dried oil varnish on the glossy varnish located on the entire surface.

    Linear gluing

    gluing at one point in the form of a line joining the sides of the package.

    Crash-lock gluing

    gluing in 3 points – the line joining the sides of the package and two points on the bottom of the package.

    4-point gluing

    gluing at 4 points connecting the sides of the package, after gluing and unfolding, we obtain a package in the form of a tray.

    6-point gluing

    gluing at 6 points connecting the sides of the package in the lower and upper part of the package, after gluing and unfolding, we obtain a package in the form of a tray with a lid in one part.

    Creased

    local weakening of the structure of cardboard or cardboard fibers, consisting in its linear crushing. The resulting indentations are designed to allow the material to be bent properly, and thus to shape the package.

    Perforation

    dotted cutting line with which you can get a fold line of paper or cardboard. The use of perforation is also used to obtain elements that we want to tear off the packaging. Depending on the purpose of the perforation, different scales are used (the ratio of cut sections to gaps)

    Laminating

    it is a technological operation consisting in refining thicker solid cardboard and / or corrugated cardboard with thin paper or cardboard. Laminating is used in cases where, for technological reasons, it is impossible to print or other refinement on the target material, due to its thickness, grammage, structure, and is also used to increase the strength of the product.

    Hot foil stamping

    is a method of refining, decorating, securing and marking the printout with the use of a special foil and embossed engraved matrices, which must be made of a heat-conducting material because the matrix reaches a temperature of up to 100 degrees Celsius. C. We distinguish three types of hot-stamping machines: flat, cylindrical and rotary machines, on each type of machines it is possible to perform gilding: flat, concave and convex, depending on the dies used. Hot-stamping is also called hot-stamping or thermo-printing.